Types of Microscopy
Four types of microscopy are used in materialographic testing, depending on the nature of the workpiece and the object of investigation, and they are described below.
In optical microscopy different filters are used to improve contrast and emphasize specific features based on material properties. This can be achieved with magnifications typically ranging from 2.5 times up to 1,000 times. In materialography, reflected light is the most commonly used type of light optical microscopy. Transmitted optical microscopy is also used, but mainly for mineralogy specimens.
Stereo Optical Microscopy
The stereo microscope is an optical microscope variant, designed for low magnification observation of a specimen, using the light reflected from the specimen surface.
Scanning Electron Microscopy
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a specimen by scanning the specimen surface with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with the atoms in the specimen, producing various signals that can be translated into information about the surface topography and the composition of the specimen.
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) uses a beam of electrons transmitted through an ultra-thin specimen and that interacts with the specimen as it passes through it. Generated signals can be translated into various types of information, including information on the type and orientation of individual crystals.